Computational Biology MCQs

Question
Option A
Option B
Option C
Option D
Correct Option
Which is not an application of computational biology
Gene therapy
Sequence alignment
Personalized medicines
Forensic science
B
Drug development is a application of
Computatio nal biology
System biology
Environmental biology
Biochemistry
A
The          is a science of using biological data to develop algorithm or model in order to understand biological systems and relationships
System biology
Computationa l biology
Environmental biology
Biochemistry
B
Computational biology includes
Drug designing
Genomics
Proteomics
All of the above
D
Computational biology consists of
Computation al biomodelling
Computational evolutionary biology
Computational genomics
All of the above
D
The identification, measurement or comparison of genomic features is called
Genome identification
Genome annotation
Genome analysis
None
C
Methods of genomic analysis typically requires
High throughoutpu t sequencing
Microarray hybridization
Both
None
C
OBRC stands for
Online bioinformati cs resources collection
Offline bioinformatics resources collection
Outline of bioinformatics research centre
None
A
A _____ is a measurement of the quality of the identification of the nucleobases generated by automated DNA sequencing
Phred quality score
E value
Bit score
Raw score
A
EGassembler is an online service which provides
Repeat masking
Vector trimming
Organelle masking
All of the above
C
Phred quality score {\displaystyle Q}Q are defined as
A property which is logarithmical ly related to the base- paring error probabilities
A property which is logarithmicall y related to the base- calling error probabilities
Both
None
B
Genome tool is a tool used for
Genome identification
Genome annotation
Genome analysis
None
C
The_______ is a scalable system for storing and retrieving genomic data
UCSC
OBRC
Ensembl
MUMer
C
A primary goal of Ensemble is to find out
Genes
SNPs
Repeats
All of the above
D
ENSG### is a
Gene Id
Genus Id
Genome Id
None
A
UCSC genome browser was created by
University of California Santa Cruz
Brookhaven Lab
NCBI
EBI
A
BLAST like tool present at UCSC browser
BLASTZ
BLAT
BLASTP
BLASTN
B
The _____ display the sorted tables of genes is called
Gene sorter
Genome analysis
Genome manipulation
Gene sorting
A
Techniques used in MUMmer algorithm
Compute suffix tree
Longest increasing subsequence
Alignment using smith- waterman algorithm
All of the above
D
MUMmer algorithm is developed by
Dayoff
Salzberg
Sangar
Pearson
B
Data submission tools are
Sequin & BankIT
Secura & Entrez
Sequin & WebIN
WebIN & BankIT
A
LIS stands for
Longest incorporating sequence
Longest increasing subsequence
Largest increasing subsequence
Largest incorporating sequence
B
BLASTz is used to find out
Orthologs in human & mouse
Paralogs in mouse sequences
Both
None
C
BLASTz follows the following strategies
Find short near-exact matches
Extend each short match without allowing gaps
Extend each gap free match that exceeds the threshold
All of the above
D
The first step of BLASTz algorithm is
Remove lineage specific interspersed repeats
Find short near-exact matches
Extend each short match without allowing gaps
Extend each gap free match that exceeds the threshold
A
There exists three types of interactions between domains. Which of the following is not one of them?
Stable complex
Transient interaction
Multi-domain protein
Unstable interaction
D
Which of the following is untrue regarding the STRING
Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/protein s
Functional associations include only the direct protein- protein interactions
It is based on combined evidence of gene linkage, gene fusion and phylogenetic profiles
It is a web server that predicts gene and protein functional associations
B
DIP stands for
Database of interacting protein
Database of interactive peptides
Database of interactome protein
None
A
Full form of BIND is
Biomolecular interactive network database
Biomolecular interaction network database
Biomolecular interactive network databank
Biomolecular interaction network databank
B
STRING is a database of
Interactive protein
Intergrated peptides
Interactive proteins
None
C
Protein interaction database hosted by EMBL-EBI is
DIP
STRING
BIND
PRIDE
D
The ________ is a inference of the 3D structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence
Protein structure prediction
Protein structure identification
Protein sequence prediction
Protein sequence identification
A
Secondary dtructure of proteins are
Alpha helix
Beta sheets
Loops & turns
All of the above
D
3D arrangement of all local structures is called
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure
C
Aim of secondary structure prediction is
To provide location of alpha helices
To provide location of beta sheets
To provide location of loops
All of the above
D
Approaches of tertiary structure predictions are
Homology modelling
Fold recognition
Ab Initio method
All of the above
D
Prediction of protein structure includes
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
All of the above
D
Computational methods of protein structure identification except
Homology modelling
X-ray crystallograph y
Ab Initio method
Fold recognition
B
Essential components of fold recognition is
Target sequence
Library of known folds
Energy scoring function
All
D
Fold recognition method is also called as
Threading
Homology modelling
Ab Initio method
Fold recognition
A
Protein structures diverged from common ancestor
Analogous fold
Paralogous fold
Homologous fold
Orthologous fold
C
Fold recognition methods includes
Profile fitting
Threading
Homology
Both a & b
D
Objectives of generating fold libraries
Derive set of proteins having unique fold
Set should represent all other folds
No redundancy
All
D
Fold recognition method is developed by
Huang et al
Dayoff et al
Sanger et al
Pearson et al
A
Which of the following is untrue about threading and fold recognition?
It assess the compatibility of an amino acid sequence with a known structure in a fold library
If the protein fold to be predicted does not exist in the fold library, the method won’t necessarily fail
If the protein fold to be predicted does not exist in the fold library, the method will fail
Threading and fold recognition do not generate fully refined atomic models for the query sequence
B
Technique used when sequence identity is greater than 35%
Homology modelling
X-ray crystallography
Ab Initio method
Fold recognition
A
Model building based on the homologous 3D structure of known protein
Homology modelling
X-ray crystallography
Ab Initio method
Fold recognition
A
Steps in homology modelling includes
Template recognition
Template evaluation
Backbone generation
All of the above
D
Template recognition uses
BLAST
FASTA
PDB
All of the above
D
Homology modelling is also known as
X-ray crystallograp hy
Ab Initio method
Comparative modelling
Fold recognition
C
The quality of the homology model is dependent on
Quality of the sequence alignment
Template structure
Both a & b
None
C
The ____________refers to constructing an atomic resolution model of the target protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental 3D structure of a related homologous protein (the template)
Homology modelling
X-ray crystallography
Ab Initio method
Fold recognition
A
In CATH structural domain separation is carried by          
Manual comparison only
Computer programs only
Human expertise only
A combined effort of a human expert and computer programs
D
SCOP is          based on manual comparison of structures by human expert with no quantitative criteria to group proteins
Entirely
Almost entirely
Not
Partially
B
PDB stands for
Protein data bank
Protein data base
Protein DNA bank
Primary data bank
A
The _________is the database established at Brrokhaven national lab
SCOP
CATH
PDB
MMDB
C
The method of protein structure comparison assumes strict one to one correspondence
Sequence dependent
Sequence independent
Superimpositio n independent
Superimposition independent
A
RMSD stands for
Rooted mean square deviation
Root mean square deviation
Rooted mean square derivatives
Root mean square derivatives
B
In _______ method structural superimposition is performed independently
Sequence dependent
Sequence independent
Superimpositio n independent
Superimposition independent
B
Methods of protein structure comparisons
Sequence dependent
Sequence independent
Superimpositio n independent
All
D
The _______ is the measure of the average distance between the atom (usually the backbone atoms) of superimposed proteins
TF family
RMSF
RMSD
RAPD
C
The        is used as a quantitative measure of similarity between two or more protein structures
RMSD
RMSF
RAPD
RAMD
A
The _______ method uses trees to infer evolutionary relationships
BLAST
ClustalW
Molecular Phylogeny
Evolutionary study
C
The graph illustrates evolutionary relationships using nodes and branches
Nodes
Branches
Phylogenetic tree
Topology
C
The _______ represent OUT
Nodes
Branches
Phylogenetic tree
Topology
A
The number of changes that have occurred in the branch is represented by
Branch width
Branch length
Branch size
Branch node
B
Methods of tree construction
Maximum parsimony
Maximum likelihood
Distance matrix
All of the above
D
UPGMA stands for
Unweighted pair group with arithmetic mean
Unweighted pair of genes with model alignment
Unwanted pair group of arithmetic mean
None
A
The _______ is a method of assigning measures of confidence to a particular node in a tree
Bootstrap
Neighbour joining
Maximum likelihood
Maximum parsimony
A
JC69 model of DNA evolution is established in the year
1996
1969
1966
1999
B
K80 model is also known as
Kimura model
Jukes and Cantor model
Felsenstein model
Tamura model
A
The_______ is the Kimura’s three parameter model
K80
F80
K81
JC69
C
The _______is referred to as Kimura’s two parameter model
K80
F80
K81
JC69
A
The simplest substitution model is
K80
K81
JC69
JC81
C
T92 model is established in the year
1993
1982
1994
1992
D
F81 model is developed by
Fischer
Felsentein
Fricks
None
B
PHYLIP developed by
Jukes and cantor
Fischer
Tamura
Joseph Felsentein
D
PHYLIP stands for
Phylogeny interactive package
Phylogeny interference packet
PHYLogeny interference package
Phylogeny identification package
C
Full form of MEGA
Molecular evolutionary genetics arrangements
Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis
Both a & b
None
B
The computer software for conducting statistical analysis of molecular evolution and for constructing phylogenetic trees is called
PHYLIP
MEGA
Clustal W
T-coffee
B
MEGA is developed by
Jukes and cantor
Joseph Felsentein
Masatoshi Nei
Fischer
C
The_______ is an interactive computer software program written in Java for viewing phylogenetic trees
PHYLIP
MEGA
Clustal W
Dendroscope
D
Dendroscope is developed by
Joseph Felsentein
Daniel Huson
Masatoshi Nei
Jukes and cantor
B
Method of species identification using a short section of DNA from a specific gene or genes
DNA identification
DNA marker
DNA barcoding
DNA coding
C
The method using barcode technique is called
DNA barcoding
DNA identification
DNA marker
DNA coding
A
BOLD stands for
Barcode of live species
Barcode of living dataset
Barcode of living data system
Barcode of life data system
D
The _______ is an informatics workbench aiding the acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records
BOLD
PHYLIP
MEGA
Dendroscope
A
Bold is developed by
Masatoshi Nei
Hajibabaei
Joseph Felsentein
Daniel Huson
B
Computational biology involves study of
Biological system
Ecological Behaviour
Social system
All of the above
D
A computational biology involves
Data analytical methods
Mathematical modelling
Computational Simulation
All of the Above
D
Somethong performed on computer or computer simulation is …
Insilico
Invivo
Invitro
all of these
A
The term Bioinformatics was coined by __________.
J.D Watson
Pauline Hogeweg
Margaret Dayhoff
Frederic Sanger
B
Genomics is the study of genomes, genome refers to the
DNA of an organism
Total DNA and RNA of an organism
Entire genes of an organism
Total DNA, cDNA and RNA of an organism
C
Bioinformatics is also called as
Computational biology
Computational biotechnology
Computer biology
Computer knowledge
A
Human genome contains about
2 billion base pairs
3 billion base pairs
4 billion base pairs
5 billion base pairs
B
Phylogenetic relationship can be shown by
Dendrogram
Gene Bank
Data search tool
Data retrieval tool
A
Phylogenetic tree
Aim to show phenotype similarity
Show the exact ages of particular species
Aim to show evolutionary histories through common ancestors
none of these
C
Sequence Alignment helps scientists…
To trace out evolutionary relationships
) To infer the function of newly synthesized genes
To predict new members of gene family
all of these
D
FASTA format starts with …symbol
/
*
>
#
C
What is the source of protein structures in SCOP and CATH?
Uniprot
Protein Data Bank
Ensemble
InterPro
B
The building blocks of proteins are ______ naturally occurring amino acids, small molecules that contain a free amino group (NH2) and a free carboxyl group (COOH).
Ten
Twenty
Nine
Nineteen
B
Which of the following is untrue about homology modeling?
Homology modeling predicts protein structures based on sequence homology with known structures
It is also known as comparative modeling
The principle behind it is that if two proteins share a high enough sequence similarity, they are likely to have very similar three-dimensional structures
It doesn’t involve the evolutionary distances anywhere
D
In pairwise energy based method, a protein sequence is searched for in a structural fold database to find the best matching structural fold using ______ criteria.
sequence-based
structure-based
energy-based
residue-based
C
Which of the following is not a Sequence alignment tools?
FASTA
BLAST
Clustal W
Rasmol
D
Which of the following is untrue about SCOP?
It is a database for comparing and classifying protein structures
It is constructed almost entirely based on manual examination of protein structures
The proteins are grouped into hierarchies of classes, folds, superfamilies, and families
The SCOP families consist of proteins having low sequence identity (>30%)
D
In CATH, Structural domain separation is carried by ___________
Manual comparison only
Computer programs only
Human expertise only
A combined effort of a human expert and computer programs
D
A phylogenetic tree that is ʺrootedʺ is one
That extends back to the origin of life on Earth.
Whose base is located the common ancestor of all taxa depicted on that tree.
That illustrates the rampant gene swapping that occurred early in lifeʹs history.
With very few branch points.
B
A phylogenetic tree also known as?
Phylogeny
Evolutionary tree
Inferred tree
Both A and B
D
Interactions between proteins can be predicted computationally by looking for sets of genes that occur as a _______
Single gene in at least one genome
Multiple genes in at least one genome
Multiple genes in various genomes
Single gene in various genomes
A
Structural bioinformatics is the branch of bioinformatics that is related to the analysis and prediction of the ____________ structure of biological macromolecules.
One-dimensional
Two-dimensional
Three-dimensional
all of the above
C
Data from which of the following sources are used for constructing phylogenetic trees:
Fossils
Morphological data
Molecular data
all of the above
D
Which of the following is an example of Homology and similarity tool?
BLAST
RasMol
EMBOSS
PROSPECT
A
Which of the following is an example of Primary protein structure database?
PDB
RasMol
SCOP
ChemBank
A
Proteomics is the study of …
Set of carbohydrates
Set of proteins
Set of specific proteins in the cell
Set of entire proteins in a cell
D
Application of computational biology
Protein Classification
Sequence analysis
Prediction of transmembrane regions
All of these
D
Analysing or comparing entire genome of species
Bioinformati cs
Genomics
Proteomics
Pharmacogenom ics
B
Areas of computational biology
Biology Medicine
Computer science
Statistics, Machine learning
All of these
D
Computational biology is the combined application of
Math
Statistics
Computer science
All of these
D
Computational biology uses mathematical and computational approaches to address theoretical and experimental questions in biology
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A
The human genome contains approximately                    _.
3 billion base pairs
6 billion base pairs
5 billion base pairs
4 billion base pairs
A
Genome analysis determine
Exact base sequence in an organism's genome
Determine position of each gene on the genome
Both a & b
None of the above
C
Which of the following are Genomic Browsers
NCBI
Ensembl Genome Browser
UCSC Genome Browser
All of these
D
Genome is
Genes on nuclear DNA
Nuclear DNA + mitochondrial DNA
Nuclear DNA + chloroplast DNA
Nuclear DNA + Mitochondrial DNA + Chloroplast DNA
D
Online Bioinformatics Resource Collection (OBRC) is a database of
National Institute of Genetics(NI G)
Health Science Library System(HSLS)
National Library of Medicine(NLM )
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics( SIB)
B
DNA Sequence Quality - Phred provides
base calling
chromatogram display and high quality sequence region evaluation
presentation for up to five sequences simultaneously
All of the above
D
Why genome analysis carried out?
To identify repetitive sequence
Gene prediction
Gene location
All of the above
D
Which of the following does not represent EnsEMBL genome?
EnsemblPlant s
EnsemblChor dates
EnsemblBacter ia
EnsemblFungi
B
Which of the feature available at EnsEMBL BIOMART tool for data extraction?
Dataset
Filters
Attribute
All of these
D
Which of the following is not filter(input) used at BIOMART data extraction?
Region
Repeat
Gene
Gene Ontology
B
Which of the following pair about EnsEMBL stable ID is incorrect?
Gene-ENSG
mRNA Transcript- ENSM
Protein-ENSP
Exon-ENSE
B
EnsEMBL/UCSC genome browser can be searched by
Gene name
Phenotype,Vari ent and Marker
Chromosome number & coordinate range
All of these
D
Which of the following track available under UCSC genome browser?
Mapping & Sequencing
Genes & Genes Prediction
mRNA & EST
All of these
D
What is the role of MUMmer in bioinformatics?
It can align: whole genomes to other genomes
large genome assemblies to one another
All of these
partial genomes sequences to one another
C
which of the following is not correct about BLASTZ
Find long matches
Find short near-exact matches
Extend each short match without allowing gaps
Extend each gap-free match that exceeds a certain threshold by a DP procedure that permits gaps
A
BlastZ based on the
gapped BLAST
ungapped BLAST
Patial gapped BLAST
None of the above
A
BlastZ is a
pairwise alignment tool
Multiple alignment tool
Both a & b
None of the above
A
Mummer was the …. whole genome comparison system developed in Bioinformatics
Second
first
Third
Both a&b
B
Which of the following examples of protein- protein interaction
Signal transduction
Muscle contraction
Both a & b
None of the above
C
Which databases does STRING extract experimental data from?
BIND
DIP
GRID
All of these
D
BIND stores information about ….
Interactions
Molecular complexes
Pathways
All of the above
D
BIND was designed to support …….
Physical interactions
Biochemical interactions
Both physical/bioch emical interactions
None of the above
C
Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP) is a
protein interaction database
protein database
Nucleotide database
None of the above
A
The Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP) is a database which depends on
Experimenta lly determined interactions
Computationall y determined interactions
Both a & b
All of the above
A
STRING database contains information from
experimental data
computational prediction method
public text collections
All of the above
D
PPIs stands for?
Protein- power interactions
Protein– protein interactions
Protein–people interactions
All of the above
B
Following are Primary structure analysis tools except
GOR-IV
ProtScale
Compute pI/Mw
ProtParam
A
Tertiary structure prediction tools are available at ExPasy
SWISS- MODEL
CPHmodels
3D-PSSM
All of the above
D
Which tool uses comparative modeling method to predict the 3-D structure of a protein?
Rosetta
Threader
CASP
Modeller
D
Which method is used for predicting protein tertiary structure in the absence of homology to a known structure?
Comparative modeling
Abinitio prediction
Threading
Surface modeling
B
ExPASy stands for
Extended Protein Analysis System
Expert Protein Alignment System
Expert Protein Analysis System
Expert Protein Annotation System
C
Following are Secondary structure analysis tools except
GOR-IV
ProtParam
SOPMA
GOR-I
B
β-pleated sheets are the examples of                    
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure
B
Which computational method is used to predict the 3-D structure of the protein?
X-ray crystallograp hy
NMR
UV Spectroscopy
Threading
D
To find the best matching structural fold using criteria.
Sequence based
Structure based
Energy based
Residue based
C
Threading predicts the structural fold of an unknown protein sequence by fitting the sequence into a structural database and selecting the best-fitting fold.
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A
There are a large number of protein folds available, compared to millions of protein sequences.
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
B
Algorithms used for threading are pairwise energy based and profile based
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
which of the following software used for Protein threading
Hhpred
RAPTOR
Phyre
All of the above
D
Homology modeling is also called as             .
Comparativ e modeling
Abinitio prediction
Threading
Surface modeling
A
Template based protein modeling techniques is called as                 .
comparative modeling
surface modeling
threading
abinitio prediction
A
Homology modeling distinguished from ab initio prediction because
Homology modeling requires a model to be built
Homology modeling requires alignment of a target to a template
Homology modeling is usefully applied to any protein sequence
None of the above
B
Homology modeling involves
alignment of the target sequence to the sequence of a template structure
alignment of the target sequence with multiple sequences with no structural information
ab initio structure prediction
no input of sequence information
A
Template based protein modeling techniques is called as                 .
comparative modeling.
surface modeling
threading.
abinitio prediction.
A
Homololgy modeling can be done using           .
Swiss-PDB Viewer
Qmol
Raswin
Babel
A
Which of the following are Homology Modelling software?
Modeller
SWISS- MODEL
PROCHECK
All of the above
D
Pfam entry can browsed by
Family Name/ID
Protein Name/Sequenc e
Protein structure PDB ID
All of these
D
A                is defined in SCOP as a collection of superfamilies.
primary structure of protein
secondary structure of protein
protein fold
mutated protein sequences
C
Which classification level CATH protein secondary database does not represent?
cluster
Architecture
Topology
Homologous Superfamily
A
What is the source of protein structures in SCOP and CATH?
Uniprot
Protein Data Bank
Ensemble
InterPro
B
What is PROSITE?
A database of protein structures
A database of protein sequences
A database of protein motifs
option a and b
C
Which of the following is not Structure databases
PDB
SCOP
CATH
SwissProt
D
Which of the following is Sequence motif databases
PROSITE
PDB
SCOP
CATH
A
Which of the following is correct about protein structure comparison?
It is important in finding remote protein homologs
Protein structures have a much higher degree of conservation than the sequences
Proteins can share common structures even without sequence similarity
All of the above
D
RMSD stands for
Root Mean Square Deviation
Root Mean Square Derivation
May be a or b
None of the above
A
which of the following is sequence-independent structural alignment methods
CE
DALI
ProSup
All of the above
D
Sequence-dependent methods of protein structure comparism between target and model residues
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A
Phylogenetic relatioship can be shown by
Dendrogram
Gene Bank
Data retriving tool
Data search tool
A
A bifurcating branch point in the phylogenetic tree is known as
Node
Clade
Branch
Taxon
A
Expand UPGMA
Unweighted Pair Group Method with All Mean.
Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean.
Upregulated Gene Method with Arithmetic Mean.
Unregulated Genome Method with All Mean.
B
Which is a distance- based method in tree construction?
UPGMA
Jukes-Cantor
Minimum evolution
Maximum parsimony
A
Which one of the following is not a character-based method in tree construction?
Maximum parsimony
Minimum likelihood
Minimum evolution method
Neighbor joining
D
which of the following sources are used for constructing phylogenetic trees
fossils
morphological data
molecular data
All of the above
D
The study of evolutionary relationship is                 .
Phylogenics
Molecular Evolution
Cladogenesis
Cladistics
A
Phylogeny used to determine
Mutation
DNA
Evolutionary history
Organism on earth
C
Which of the following common models of DNA evolution
JC69 model
K80 model
K81 model
All of the above
D
Models of evolution are used in phylogenetic analyses to describe changes in character state, i.e., the rate of change from one nucleotide to another.
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A
Phylogenetics offers constructive theories but not absolute facts
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A
A number of different Markov models of DNA sequence evolution have been used
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A
PROSESS is a web server designed to evaluate and validate protein structures generated by
X-ray crystallograp hy
NMR spectroscopy
computational modeling
All of the above
D
PHYLIP can build trees from which of the following methods
distance
parsimony
likelihood
All of the above
D
PHYLIP stands for
PHYLogeny Inference Package
PHYLogeny Interference Package
PHYLogeny Inference Process
All of the above
A
An example of a program for constructing a phylogenetic tree is
Phrap
Phylip
Prodom
PHDsec
B
Dendroscope allows users to draw and compare…
rooted tree
unrooted rooted tree
Both a & b
None of the above
A
Dendroscope can be used for…
Analyses of molecular data sets
Designed for metagenomics
Analyses of uncultured environmental samples
All of the above
D
MEGA is an integrated tool for conducting
Sequence alignment,
Inferring phylogenetic trees
Estimating divergence times
All of the above
D
MEGA stands for
Molecular Evolutionar y Genetics Analysis
Molecular Evolutionary Gene Analysis
Molecular Evolutionary Gene Annotation
None of the above
A
MEGA software used in the phylogenetic analysis
DNA sequences
Protein sequences
Both a & b
None of the above
C
Who is considered as "Father of DNA barcoding"
Smith
Paul Hebert
Chrispeels
Gartner
B
What is the importance of DNA barcoding
Protection of endangered species
To obtain taxonomic information about unidentified organisms
It is used for identifying plant leaves even when flowers or fruit are not available.
All of the above
D
DNA barcoding a tool for specimen identification and species discovery
TRUE
FALSE
May be True or False
None of the above
A